Kevin Mumford

Associate Professor

Office: Ellis-206

Queen's University
Kingston, ON K7L 3N6
Tel: (613) 533-6325
Fax: (613) 533-2128

Kevin Mumford

Research Interests:

What we do: The world is connected by water. Water resources, including groundwater, are under enormous pressure from the effects of climate change, energy resource development, and the impact of emerging contaminants. There is an urgent need to protect and manage the quantity and quality of groundwater to promote its sustainable use in a global society. With this larger objective in mind, the Mumford Research Group is focused on answering questions related to groundwater contamination and remediation, with a particular interest in multiphase flow and mass transfer in porous media. Our research uses high-resolution experiments conducted in physical laboratory models of groundwater systems in combination with advanced numerical models to identify key processes and explore their effects at the field scale.



In Situ Thermal Remediation: Heating soil and groundwater to remove volatile and semi-volatile compounds is an aggressive and effective remediation technology, particularly for the removal of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as a petroleum fuels and chlorinated solvents. Thermal technologies often rely on the production, capture and treatment of a gas phase, whose migration is sensitive to subsurface heterogeneities. Advances are needed to effectively and efficiently treat compounds with higher boiling points, reduce energy consumption, and develop combined technologies.
Subsurface-Gas-Migration Subsurface Gas Migration: Gases in shallow aquifers can be created by a wide variety of mechanisms, including by in situ remediation technologies, microbial populations, and leaks from improperly sealed deeper wells, and include gases relevant to GHG emissions such as CO2 and CH4. Their migration is controlled by both capillary and buoyancy forces, resulting in a complex and dynamic gas architecture. Questions remain concerning the dissolution of these trapped gases, interactions with background dissolved gases, and effects on emissions, persistence, investigation and monitoring.
PFAS-Fate-and-Transport PFAS Fate and Transport: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging threat to human health and water quality, including surface water and groundwater, due their widespread use, extremely low regulatory limits, and high chemical stability. An improved understanding of fate and transport is essential for the characterization, management and remediation of PFAS-impacted sites. Knowledge gaps exists concerning the partitioning of new and legacy PFAS and precursors to various environmental compartments, including to air-water and NAPL-water interfaces.
Bubble-facilitated-VOC-Transport Bubble-facilitated VOC Transport: Gas bubbles can be created by a wide variety of natural and remediation-based mechanisms, including gas trapping during water table fluctuations, biogenic gas production, and the exsolution of gases produced by remediation reactions. It is important to understand the effect of these gases on contaminant transport, including through the mobilization of gas bubbles and the partitioning of contaminants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), to the gas phase or gas-water interface. Implications of these effects include natural source zone depletion and vapour intrusion.
Simulation-using-Macroscopic-Invasion-Percolation Simulation using Macroscopic Invasion Percolation: Numerical models of multiphase flow using macroscopic invasion percolation (macro-IP) are an alternative to traditional continuum-based approaches that is particularly well suited for simulating unstable non-wetting phase invasion, including fragmentation and mobilization processes. Continuum-based models of heat and mass transport have been coupled to macro-IP models to provide insight into in situ thermal remediation, methane dynamics in peatlands, and the bubble-facilitated transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).



I am an Environmental Engineer committed to helping us better understand the behaviour of contaminants in subsurface environments and how that understanding can be used to protect and remediate soil and groundwater.  I direct a research group focused on the investigation of multiphase flow and mass transfer in groundwater systems, including those related to non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and subsurface gases, using a combination of laboratory experiments and numerical models, to develop and improve site investigation strategies and remediation technologies.


2008 Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Civil Engineering (McMaster University)
Thesis: Spontaneous expansion and mobilization of a discontinuous gas phase due to mass transfer from dense non-aqueous phase liquid
2002 Master of Applied Science (M.A.Sc.) in Civil Engineering (University of Waterloo)
Thesis: Investigation of natural oxidant demand reactions in a sandy aquifer material
2000 Bachelor of Applied Science (B.A.Sc.) in Environmental Engineering (Chemical) (University of Waterloo)


2020 Excellence in Research Award, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Queen’s University
2019 Nominated for the Award for Excellence in Graduate Supervision, Queen’s University
2018 Civil Engineering Teaching Award, Queen’s University, Dept. of Civil Engineering
2015 Civil Engineering Teaching Award, Queen’s University, Dept. of Civil Engineering
2013 Finalist for Frank Knox Award for Excellence in Teaching from the Alma Mater Society of Queen’s University
2013 Civil Engineering Teaching Award, Queen’s University, Dept. of Civil Engineering
2009 NSERC Postdoctoral Fellowship
2009 Governor General’s Academic Gold Medal, McMaster University
2009 McMaster Nominee, NSERC Doctoral Prize (Eng. & Comp. Sci.)
2009 McMaster Nominee, Canadian Association for Graduate Studies/University Microfilms International (CAGS/UMI) Distinguished Dissertation Award (Engineering/Medical Sciences/Natural Sciences)

Professional and Academic Experience:

2016 - Present Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Queen's University
2019 Acting Associate Head, Department of Civil Engineering, Queen’s University
2010 - 2016 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Queen's University
2009 Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario
2006 Sessional Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, McMaster University
2004 - 2007 Teaching Assistant, Department of Civil Engineering, McMaster University
2002 - 2004 Consultant, Geomatrix Consultants and Engineers Inc., Waterloo, Ontario
2000 - 2002 Teaching Assistant, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Waterloo


  1. Banerjee, I.*, A. Guthke, J.C. Van De Ven, K.G. Mumford, W. Nowak (2021), Overcoming the model-data-fit problem in porous media: A quantitative method to compare invasion-percolation models to high-resolution data, Water Resources Research, 57.
  2. Van De Ven, C.J.C.*, K.G. Mumford (2020), Intermediate-scale laboratory investigation of stray gas migration impacts: methane source architecture and dissolution, Environmental Science and Technology, 54(10), 6299-6307.
  3. Van De Ven, C.J.C.*, E.F. Abraham, K.G. Mumford (2020), Laboratory investigation of free-phase stray gas migration in shallow aquifers using modified light transmission, Advances in Water Resources, 139, 103543.
  4. Liu, B.*, G. Li, K.G. Mumford, B.H. Kueper, F. Zhang (2020), Low permeability zone remediation of trichloroethene via coupling electrokinetic migration with in situ electrochemical hydrodechlorination, Chemosphere, 250, 126209.
  5. Xie, Q.*, G. Mumford, B.H. Kueper (2020), Modelling gas-phase recovery of volatile organic compounds during in-situ thermal treatment, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 234, 103698.
  6. Turner, L.P, B.H. Kueper, K.M. Jannsalu, D.J. Patch, N. Battye, El-Sharnouby, K.G. Mumford, K.P. Weber* (2020), Mechanochemical remediation of PFOS and PFOA amended sand and AFFF impacted soil by planetary ball milling, Science of the Total Environment, In Press.
  7. Van De Ven, C.J.C.*, K.G. Mumford (2020), Aqueous and surface expression of subsurface GHGs: Mass transfer effects on emissions, Water Research, 170(1), 115327.
  8. Van De Ven, C.J.C.*, K.G. Mumford (2020), Intermediate-scale laboratory investigation of stray gas migration impacts: transient gas migration and surface expression, Environmental Science and Technology, 54(19), 12493-12501.
  9. Mohammed, O., K.G. Mumford*, B.E. Sleep (2020), Effects of hydrogen gas production, trapping and bubble-facilitated transport during nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) injection in porous media, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 234, 103677.
  10. Mohammed, O., K.G. Mumford*, B.E. Sleep (2019), Relative permeability measurements during the exsolution and dissolution of hydrogen gas produced by the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, Vadose Zone Journal, 18(1), 190043.
  11. Xie, Q.*, G. Mumford, B.H. Kueper (2019), A numerical model for estimating the removal of volatile organic compounds in laboratory-scale treatability tests for thermal treatment of NAPL-impacted soils, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 226, 103526.
  12. Van De Ven, C.J.C.*, K.G. Mumford (2019), Characterization of gas injection flow patterns subject to gravity and viscous forces, Vadose Zone Journal, 18(1), doi:10.2136/02.0014.
  13. Molnar, I.L., K.G. Mumford, M.M. Krol* (2019), Electro-thermal subsurface gas generation and transport: model validation and implications, Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/
  14. Fruetel, C., G. Mumford*, A.M.F da Silva, A. Rey, K.S. Bascom (2019), A laboratory method for the visualization and quantification of hyporheic flow paths and velocities, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 46(5), 448-457.
  15. Hicknell, B.N., G. Mumford*, B.H. Kueper (2018), Laboratory study of creosote removal from sand at elevated temperatures, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 219,40-49.
  16. Van De Ven, C.J.C., K.G. Mumford* (2018), Visualization of gas dissolution following upward gas migration in porous media: technique and implications for stray gas, Advances in Water Resources, 115, 33-43.
  17. Hossain, S.Z., K.G. Mumford*, A. Rutter (2017), Laboratory study of mass transfer from diluted bitumen trapped in gravel, Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 19, 1583-1593.
  18. Hossain, S.Z., K.G. Mumford* (2017), Capillary pressure-saturation relationships for diluted bitumen and water in gravel, Journal of Hydrology, 551, 306-313.
  19. Soucy, N.C., K.G. Mumford* (2017), Bubble-facilitated VOC transport from LNAPL smear zones and its potential effect on vapor intrusion, Environmental Science & Technology, 20 pages, 51(5), 2795-2802.
  20. Martin, E.M., K.G. Mumford*, B.H. Kueper, G.A. Siemens (2017), Gas formation in sand and clay during electrical resistance heating, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 110, 855-862.
  21. Sills, L.K., K.G. Mumford*, G.A. Siemens (2017), Quantification of fluid saturations in transparent porous media, Vadose Zone Journal, 16(2), doi:10.2136/vzj2016.06.0052.
  22. Munholland, J.L., K.G. Mumford*, B.H. Kueper (2016), Gas migration and contaminant redistribution in heterogeneous porous media subject to electrical resistance heating, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 184, 14-24.
  23. Martin, E.M., K.G. Mumford*, B.H. Kueper (2016), Electrical resistance heating of clay layers in water-saturated sand, Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation, 36(1), 54-61.
  24. Cianflone S.P.L., S.E. Dickson*, K.G. Mumford (2016), On the importance of gravity in DNAPL invasion of saturated horizontal fractures, Groundwater, doi:10.1111/gwat.12441.
  25. Mumford, K.G.*, Mustafa, J.I Gerhard (2015), Probabilistic risk assessment of contaminant transport in groundwater and vapour intrusion following remediation of a contaminant source, Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 30(3), 1017-1031.
  26. Mumford, K.G.*, R. Hegele, G. Vandenberg (2015), Comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional macroscopic invasion percolation simulations to laboratory experiments of gas bubble flow in homogeneous sands, Vadose Zone Journal, 14(11), doi:10.2136/ vzj2015.02.0028.
  27. Hegele, P.R., K.G. Mumford* (2015), Dissolved gas exsolution to enhance gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating, Advances in Water Resources, 79, 153-161.
  28. Siemens, G.A.*, K.G. Mumford, Kucharczuk (2015), Characterization of transparent soil for use in heat transport experiments, ASTM Geotechnical Testing Journal, 38(5), doi: 10.1520/GTJ20140218.
  29. Hegele, P.R., K.G. Mumford* (2014), Gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating of water and trichloroethene, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 165, 24-36.
  30. Zhao, C., K.G. Mumford*, B.H. Kueper (2014), Laboratory study of non-aqueous phase liquid and water co-boiling during thermal treatment, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 164, 49-68.
  31. Mustafa, N., K.G. Mumford*, J.I. Gerhard, D.M. O’Carroll (2014), A three-dimensional numerical model for linking community-wide vapour risks, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 156, 38-51.
  32. Krol, M.M., K.G. Mumford, R.L. Johnson, B.E. Sleep* (2011), Modeling discrete gas bubble formation and mobilization during subsurface heating of contaminated zones, Advances in Water Resources, 34(4), 537-549.
  33. Mumford, K.G.*, D.M. O’Carroll (2011), Drainage under nonequilibrium conditions: exploring wettability and dynamic contact angle effects using bundle-of-tubes simulations, Vadose Zone Journal, 10, 1162-1172.
  34. O’Carroll, D.M.*, K.G. Mumford, L.M. Abriola, J.I. Gerhard (2010), The influence of wettability variations on dynamic effects in capillary pressure, Water Resources Research, 46, W08505, doi:10.1029/2009WR008712.
  35. Mumford, K.G., J.E. Smith*, S.E. Dickson (2010), The effect of spontaneous gas expansion and mobilization on the aqueous-phase concentrations above a dense non-aqueous phase liquid pool, Advances in Water Resources, 33, 504-513.
  36. Mumford, K.G., J.E. Smith*, S.E. Dickson (2009), New observations of gas-phase expansion above a non-aqueous phase liquid pool, Vadose Zone Journal, 8(2), 404-410.
  37. Mumford, K.G., S.E. Dickson, J.E. Smith* (2009), Slow gas expansion in saturated natural porous media by gas injection and partitioning with non-aqueous phase liquids, Advances in Water Resources, 32, 29-40.
  38. Mumford, K.G., J.E. Smith*, S.E. Dickson (2008), Mass flux from a non-aqueous phase liquid pool considering spontaneous expansion of a discontinuous gas phase, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 98, 85-96.
  39. Mumford, K.G., J.F. MacGregor, S.E. Dickson*, R.H. Frappa (2007), Multivariate analysis of groundwater and soil data from a waste disposal site, Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation Winter 2007, 92-102.
  40. Mumford, K.G., N.R. Thomson*, R.M. Allen-King (2005), Bench-scale investigation of permanganate natural oxidant demand kinetics, Environmental Science and Technology, 39(8), 2835-2840.
  41. Mumford, K.G., C. Lamarche, N.R. Thomson* (2004), Natural oxidant demand of aquifer materials using the push-pull technique with permanganate, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 130(10), 1139-1146.

Current Group Members:

Ariel Garcia

Ariel Nunez Garcia (Postdoctoral Researcher)

Intermediate-scale testing of in-situ thermal remediation to optimize performance monitoring

Qianli Xie

Qianli Xie (PhD candidate)

Modelling of mass recovery during thermal remediation using invasion percolation techniques (co-supervised by B. Kueper)

Justine Abraham

Justine Abraham (MASc candidate)

Partitioning of PFAS to air-water interfaces of trapped bubbles in porous media

Madeline Calvert

Madeline Calvert (MASc candidate)

Multicomponent gas-water partitioning during stray gas migration

Mitch Davidson

Mitchell Davidson (MASc candidate)

Effects of source gas architecture on the dissolution of stray gas

Aidan McKinstry

Aidan McKinstry (MASc candidate)

Bubble-facilitated transport from contaminated sediments (co-supervised by R. Mulligan)

Liam Price

Liam Price (MASc candidate)

High-temperature treatment of PAHs in semi-volatile NAPL mixtures

Former Group Members:


Cole Van De Ven (PhD 2019), Stray gas migration in shallow groundwater: gas dynamics, mass transfer, and environmental expression

Sumit Kalia (PhD 2020), Stochastic optimization of monitoring well placement for site investigation (co-supervised by B. Kueper)

Obai Mohammed (PhD 2018), Gas generation during nanoscale zero-valent iron injection

Eric Martin (PhD 2017), DNAPL treatment by electrical resistance heating in sand and clay (co-supervised by B. Kueper)

Omneya El-Sharnouby (Postdoctoral 2017-2018), PFAS sorption in fractured rock

Sean Bryck (Research Associate 2014-2017), Simulation and virtual investigation of complex DNAPL sites (co-supervised by B. Kueper)

Nicholas Ashmore (MASc 2020), Dissolution of stray gas mixtures

Zenith Wong (MASc 2021), Influence of dissolved gases on thermal remediation

Matan Freedman (MASc 2021), Principal component analysis of in situ bioremediation performance

Jian Wu (MASc 2019), NAPL mobilization by flowing gas bubbles in porous media

Caroline Wisheart (MASc 2019), Numerical modelling of gas dynamics in peatlands

Brianne Hicknell (MASc 2017), Laboratory investigation of heating SVOC NAPL mixtures (co-supervised by B. Kueper)

Zubair Hossain (MASc 2016), Dissolution of heavy oil in river gravel at high velocity

Ying Lei (MASc 2016), Oil droplet transport in river gravel

Nicole Soucy (MASc 2016), Bubble-facilitated transport of VOCs from LNAPL smear zones

Chris Fruetel (MASc 2016), Laboratory investigation of hyporheic flow in river gravel (co-supervised by A. da Silva)

Mahmudul Shojib (MASc 2015), Dissolution of trapped light non-aqueous phase liquid in the presence of trapped gas

Lee-Ann Sills (MASc 2015), Investigation of gas breakthrough of two-dimensional capillary barriers using transparent soil (co-supervised by G. Siemens)

Jonah Munholland (MASc 2014), Electrical resistance heating in heterogeneous sand (co-supervised by B. Kueper)

Paul Hegele (MASc 2014), Gas dynamics during electrical resistance heating

Cindy Zhao (MASc 2013), Laboratory investigation of thermal remediation

Opportunities and Project descriptions:

The Mumford Research Group is actively seeking two PhD positions for a start date of January or May 2022. The first is focused on developing an improved understanding of in situ thermal remediation, including the treatment of semi-volatile NAPL mixtures and developing improved strategies for early shutdown, enhanced removal and combined technologies to promote sustainable technology application. The second position is focused on understanding the transport of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in sediment, wetland and groundwater systems, particularly related to retention of PFAS at air-water and NAPL-water interfaces. Research in both positions will include bench-scale and intermediate-scale laboratory experiments, and could include numerical model development and application. Master’s and PhD positions are also available in the areas of in situ soil and groundwater remediation, bubble-facilitated contaminant transport, stray gas migration of methane, and potential impacts of subsurface hydrogen storage on groundwater quality.

Application information:

Applicants should have a background in Civil, Environmental, Chemical, or Geological Engineering, or the Geological Sciences with a strong academic record and be interested in pursuing leading research. Previous experience related to multiphase flow and environmental research is an asset, but is not essential. Interested candidates should send a cover letter, CV and transcripts to, with the subject line “Mumford research position”.


Queen’s University is located in historic Kingston, Ontario, Canada where Lake Ontario flows into the St. Lawrence River, on the traditional territories of the Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabe. Queen’s University was recently ranked 1st in Canada and 5th in the world according to the Times Higher Education Impact Rankings that assess performance against the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals.  Kingston is an easy drive to Toronto, Montreal and Ottawa, and is just west of the Thousand Islands. The Department of Civil Engineering is home to the Beaty Water Research Centre ( and the GeoEngineering Centre at Queen’s-RMC ( with interdisciplinary expertise in areas that cover physical and chemical research related to water, and how water affects natural and built materials and environments.